Green Dental and Orthodontics

Orthodontic Dictionary

Orthodontic Dictionary

A

  • Alignment: The process of straightening teeth and correcting their position.
  • Archwire: A metal wire that is attached to brackets to help move teeth into the desired position.
  • Appliance: Any device or apparatus used in orthodontic treatment, such as braces or aligners.
  • Anchorage: The resistance provided by teeth or structures to hold them in place during orthodontic treatment.
  • Acceledent: A device used to accelerate tooth movement by applying gentle vibrations.
  • Ankylosed tooth: A tooth that is fused to the surrounding bone, preventing its normal eruption or movement.
  • Aesthetic brackets: Brackets that are made of a tooth-colored or clear material to make them less noticeable.
  • Anterior: Referring to the front teeth or the area in front of the mouth.
  • Aligner: A transparent, removable orthodontic device used to gradually move teeth.
  • Arch expansion: The widening of the dental arch to create additional space for properly aligning teeth.

B

  • Braces: Orthodontic appliances consisting of brackets, bands, and wires that are used to correct tooth alignment.
  • Bite: The way the upper and lower teeth come together when the mouth is closed.
  • Bonding: The process of attaching brackets to the teeth using a special dental adhesive.
  • Buccal tube: A metal tube attached to the molar bands that holds the archwire in place.
  • Bimaxillary protrusion: A condition where both the upper and lower jaws protrude forward.
  • Banding: The process of fitting and cementing orthodontic bands around the molars.
  • Bite plate: An orthodontic appliance used to correct bite problems by repositioning the jaw.
  • Beta titanium: An alloy of titanium used in orthodontics due to its flexibility and shape memory.
  • Bruxism: The habitual grinding or clenching of teeth, which can impact orthodontic treatment.
  • Bumper appliance: A device used to prevent the contact between the upper and lower teeth, especially during sleep.

C

  • Crossbite: A dental condition where the upper and lower teeth are misaligned, causing some of the upper teeth to fit inside the lower teeth.
  • Crowding: A condition where there is insufficient space in the jaw for the teeth to properly align.
  • Clear aligners: Transparent, removable orthodontic appliances that gradually move teeth into the desired position.
  • Cephalometric X-ray: An X-ray image of the head used to analyze the relationship of the teeth and jaws.
  • Class I malocclusion: The ideal relationship of the upper and lower teeth where the bite is normal.
  • Class II malocclusion: A dental misalignment where the upper teeth protrude further forward than the lower teeth (overbite).
  • Class III malocclusion: A dental misalignment where the lower teeth protrude further forward than the upper teeth (underbite).
  • Canine: The pointy tooth next to the lateral incisors, also known as the “eye tooth” or “cuspid.”
  • Cleft lip and palate: A congenital condition where the lip and/or palate do not fully fuse during fetal development.
  • Coil spring: A device used in orthodontics to create space between teeth by pushing them apart.

D

  • Dental midline: The imaginary line that divides the upper and lower teeth in the center of the mouth.
  • Diastema: A gap or space between two teeth.
  • Debanding: The process of removing orthodontic bands or brackets from the teeth.
  • Digital impressions: The use of digital technology to create 3D models of the teeth without traditional impressions.
  • Distalization: The movement of teeth towards the back of the mouth to create space or correct a bite discrepancy.
  • Damon braces: A type of self-ligating braces that use a sliding mechanism to hold the archwire.
  • Decalcification: The loss of minerals from tooth enamel, resulting in white spots or cavities.
  • Dentoalveolar: Refers to the teeth and their supporting structures (alveolar bone, gums, etc.).
  • Disclusion: The separation or disengagement of teeth when the jaw moves.
  • Digital orthodontics: The use of digital technology, such as 3D imaging and computer-aided design, in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

E

  • Elastics: Small rubber bands used in orthodontic treatment to apply pressure and help correct bite and alignment issues.
  • Expansion appliance: A device used to widen the upper or lower jaw to create more space for properly aligned teeth.
  • Edgewise brackets: Traditional orthodontic brackets with a rectangular slot that holds the archwire securely in place.
  • Esthetics: The consideration of the appearance and cosmetic aspects of orthodontic treatment.
  • Eruption: The process by which a tooth emerges through the gum and becomes visible in the mouth.
  • Extrusion: The movement of a tooth in a direction away from the gum or bone.
  • Essix retainer: A clear, removable retainer made from a transparent material called Essix that helps maintain the position of the teeth after orthodontic treatment.
  • Endodontics: The branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of dental pulp and root canal-related issues.
  • Elastic separators: Small rubber rings or modules used to create space between teeth before the placement of orthodontic bands.
  • Enameloplasty: The reshaping or removal of a small amount of tooth enamel to correct minor irregularities or create space for tooth movement.

F

  • Fixed retainer: A thin wire bonded to the back of the teeth to maintain the alignment after orthodontic treatment.
  • Forsus appliance: A fixed orthodontic appliance used to correct overbites by applying continuous pressure on the upper or lower teeth.
  • Frenectomy: The surgical removal or modification of the frenum, the thin tissue that connects the lips or tongue to the gum or floor of the mouth.
  • Functional appliance: A type of orthodontic device used to correct skeletal and bite discrepancies by influencing the growth and development of the jaw.
  • Floss threader: A tool used to guide dental floss underneath orthodontic wires or around braces for proper oral hygiene.
  • Fixed orthodontic appliance: Any orthodontic appliance that is attached to the teeth and cannot be removed by the patient.
  • Frenum: A fold of tissue or muscle fibers that attaches the lips or tongue to the gum or floor of the mouth.
  • Full braces: The complete set of brackets, bands, and wires used to align and straighten the teeth.
  • Facial profile: The outline or contour of the face as influenced by the position and alignment of the jaws and teeth.
  • Forceps: Dental instruments used to grip and remove teeth during orthodontic extractions or other procedures.

G

  • Gingiva: The gum tissue surrounding the teeth.
  • Growth modification: Orthodontic treatment techniques that aim to influence and guide the growth and development of the jaws.
  • Gap band: A small elastic band used to close or minimize spaces between teeth.
  • Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gum tissue, often caused by poor oral hygiene.
  • Glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue, which can be caused by various factors such as infection or irritation.
  • Genioplasty: A surgical procedure to reshape or reposition the chin for aesthetic or functional purposes.
  • Guided tissue regeneration: A procedure used to regenerate lost or damaged gum and bone tissue around teeth.
  • Geometrically shaped archwire: An archwire with specific bends and shapes designed to facilitate tooth movement.
  • Gingivectomy: A surgical procedure to remove or reshape excess gum tissue.
  • Growth spurt: A period of rapid growth and development, often occurring during adolescence, that can impact orthodontic treatment.

H

  • Hawley retainer: A removable retainer made of acrylic and wires that helps maintain the position of the teeth after orthodontic treatment.
  • Headgear: An orthodontic appliance worn outside the mouth that uses straps or wires to apply force to the teeth and jaws for corrective purposes.
  • High-pull headgear: A type of headgear that applies force to the upper teeth and upper jaw to correct an overbite or encourage upper jaw growth.
  • Herbst appliance: A fixed orthodontic appliance used to correct bite problems by promoting lower jaw growth and controlling the position of the lower jaw.
  • Habit appliance: An orthodontic device used to discourage or eliminate harmful oral habits such as thumb sucking or tongue thrusting.
  • Hypodontia: A condition characterized by the absence of one or more permanent teeth.
  • Horizontal overjet: A condition where the upper front teeth protrude horizontally beyond the lower front teeth.
  • Hybrid braces: A combination of traditional braces and clear aligner technology, providing a more discreet orthodontic treatment option.
  • Hard palate: The bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth.
  • Hypertrophy: An abnormal or excessive growth of tissue, such as an enlarged jaw or tongue.

I

  • Impression: A negative mold or replica of the teeth and surrounding tissues used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and the creation of orthodontic appliances.
  • Interproximal reduction (IPR): The removal of small amounts of enamel between adjacent teeth to create space for proper alignment.
  • Incisors: The four front teeth in the upper and lower jaws used for biting and cutting food.
  • Interceptive orthodontics: Early orthodontic treatment performed in children to address developing dental and skeletal issues.
  • Invisalign: A brand of clear aligners that are nearly invisible and removable, providing an alternative to traditional braces.
  • Impacted tooth: A tooth that fails to emerge fully through the gum due to obstruction or lack of space.
  • Intraoral appliance: Any orthodontic appliance or device that is placed within the mouth.
  • Interarch elastics: Elastics or rubber bands are used to apply force between the upper and lower jaws to correct bite discrepancies.
  • Incisal edge: The biting or cutting edge of a tooth, particularly the front teeth.
  • Ideal occlusion: The optimal alignment of the teeth and jaws, resulting in a proper bite and functioning of the teeth.

J

  • Jaws: The upper and lower bony structures that support the teeth.
  • Jaw growth: The natural development and enlargement of the jaws over time.
  • J-hook headgear: A type of headgear that uses a J-shaped hook to apply force to the teeth and jaw.
  • Joint: The point where the upper and lower jaws meet, known as the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
  • Jumper appliance: An orthodontic device used to correct bite problems by encouraging the growth of the lower jaw.
  • Jet bite: A condition where the upper front teeth excessively overlap the lower front teeth, resulting in a deep bite.
  • Jaw surgery: Orthognathic surgery performed to correct skeletal discrepancies and improve jaw alignment.
  • Jiggling: The gentle wiggling or movement of teeth to facilitate tooth eruption or repositioning.
  • Jaw relationship: The way the upper and lower jaws align and interact with each other.
  • Joint clicking: A clicking or popping sound that occurs in the temporomandibular joint during jaw movement, often associated with TMJ disorders.

K

  • Korkodil: A specialized dental instrument used for bending and adjusting orthodontic wires.
  • Kissing molars: A term used to describe the contact between the upper and lower molars when the jaw is in a biting position.
  • Keratinized gingiva: The firm, tough gum tissue that surrounds and protects the teeth.
  • Keyhole shape: A specific shape of the archwire used in orthodontic treatment, resembling a keyhole.
  • Knotted archwire: An archwire with small knots tied on it to provide additional control and force during tooth movement.
  • Kois deprogrammer: A dental device used to relax the jaw muscles and relieve tension or pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorders.
  • K9 teeth: The canines, also known as the “eye teeth” or “cuspid teeth,” which are the pointy teeth next to the lateral incisors.
  • K-orthodontics: An approach to orthodontic treatment that focuses on the natural alignment and function of the teeth and jaws.
  • Kinetoscope: A diagnostic tool used to analyze and record jaw movements and occlusion.
  • Knurling: The process of creating small grooves or ridges on the surface of orthodontic appliances for enhanced retention and grip.

L

  • Lingual braces: Orthodontic braces that are placed on the inner surface of the teeth, making them less visible from the front.
  • Lateral incisors: The teeth on either side of the central incisors, next to the canines.
  • Ligature: A small elastic or wire used to hold the archwire in place within the brackets.
  • Lip bumper: An orthodontic appliance that helps create space between the upper and lower teeth by exerting pressure on the lips.
  • Loop archwire: An archwire with loops incorporated into it to provide additional control and movement of the teeth.
  • Labial frenectomy: A surgical procedure to remove or modify the frenum, the tissue that connects the lips to the gum.
  • Ligature wire: A thin wire used to secure the archwire to the brackets.
  • Lateral cephalometric X-ray: A type of cephalometric X-ray that captures the side profile of the face and jaws.
  • Labiomental fold: The crease or contour between the lower lip and the chin.
  • Lingual torquing: The process of applying torque or rotational force to the teeth using lingual brackets.

M

  • Malocclusion: A misalignment or incorrect positioning of the teeth and jaws.
  • Mandible: The lower jawbone that holds the lower teeth.
  • Midline: An imaginary vertical line that divides the face into equal halves, bisecting the upper and lower dental arches.
  • Mini-implants: Small screw-like devices placed into the jawbone to provide anchorage for orthodontic treatment.
  • Myofunctional therapy: A treatment approach that aims to correct improper oral muscle function and habits.
  • Molar bands: Metal rings that encircle the back teeth to provide a stable anchor for orthodontic appliances.
  • Multibracket appliance: A type of fixed orthodontic appliance that uses individual brackets for each tooth.
  • Micro-osteoperforations: A minimally invasive technique that creates small holes in the bone to accelerate tooth movement.
  • Mesialization: The movement of a tooth towards the midline of the dental arch.
  • Mouthguard: A protective device worn during sports or physical activities to prevent dental and jaw injuries.

N

  • Nance appliance: An orthodontic device used to maintain space in the upper dental arch after the premature loss of baby teeth.
  • Nasolabial angle: The angle formed by the junction of the nose and upper lip, which can affect facial aesthetics.
  • Nickel-titanium (NiTi): A type of alloy used in orthodontics that provides shape memory and flexibility to archwires.
  • Neutroclusion: The ideal dental and skeletal relationship where the upper and lower teeth align properly.
  • Non-extraction treatment: An orthodontic treatment approach where all permanent teeth are retained, and extraction of teeth is not necessary.
  • Non-esthetic brackets: Traditional metal brackets used in orthodontic treatment that are more noticeable than tooth-colored or clear brackets.
  • Nasal bone: The small bones that form the bridge of the nose.
  • Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance in the body that transmits signals between nerve cells.
  • Narrow palate: A condition characterized by a narrow upper dental arch and limited space for the teeth.
  • Nightguard: A removable oral appliance worn during sleep to protect the teeth and jaw from grinding or clenching (bruxism).

O

  • Occlusion: The way the upper and lower teeth fit together when the jaw is closed.
  • Overbite: A dental condition where the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth excessively.
  • Orthodontics: The branch of dentistry that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities.
  • Open bite: A dental condition where the upper and lower teeth do not meet when the jaw is closed, leaving a gap between them.
  • Orthodontist: A dental specialist who has completed additional training and specializes in orthodontic treatment.
  • OPG (Orthopantomogram): A panoramic X-ray that provides a comprehensive view of the jaws, teeth, and surrounding structures.
  • Orthognathic surgery: Surgical procedures performed to correct significant skeletal or jaw discrepancies.
  • O-Rings: Small elastic rings used to secure archwires to brackets.
  • Overjet: The horizontal distance between the upper and lower front teeth when the jaw is closed.
  • Oral hygiene: The practice of maintaining cleanliness and health of the teeth and oral tissues through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups.

P

  • Palatal expander: An orthodontic appliance used to widen the upper dental arch and create more space for properly aligned teeth.
  • Panoramic X-ray: An X-ray that captures a broad view of the entire mouth, jaws, and surrounding structures.
  • Periodontal disease: A condition that affects the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, often resulting in inflammation and tooth loss.
  • Posterior teeth: The teeth located towards the back of the mouth, including premolars and molars.
  • Protrusion: The forward positioning of the upper or lower teeth beyond their normal alignment.
  • Plaque: A sticky film of bacteria that forms on teeth and can contribute to tooth decay and gum disease.
  • Power chain: A series of interconnected elastic O-rings used to close gaps between teeth and maintain archwire alignment.
  • Prosthodontics: The branch of dentistry that deals with the design, creation, and fitting of artificial teeth or dental prostheses.
  • Premolars: The teeth located between the canines and molars, used for chewing and grinding food.
  • Palatal bar: A fixed orthodontic appliance that connects the upper molars to stabilize the dental arch.

Q

  • Quad helix: A fixed orthodontic appliance used to expand the dental arch and correct crossbites.
  • Quiescent period: A period of stability or rest during orthodontic treatment when the teeth are not actively moving.
  • Quad helix appliance: A fixed orthodontic appliance used to correct dental malocclusions and create space.
  • Quick braces: An accelerated orthodontic treatment method that uses advanced techniques and materials to shorten treatment duration.
  • Quenching: A process of rapidly cooling metal orthodontic appliances to enhance their hardness and strength.
  • Quality of life: The overall well-being and satisfaction of an individual, including their dental and orthodontic experiences.
  • Quiet time: A period of time during orthodontic treatment when the teeth are not actively adjusted or modified.
  • Q-tip technique: A method of applying dental adhesive to brackets using a cotton swab (Q-tip).
  • Quiescent tooth: A tooth that is not actively erupting or moving during orthodontic treatment.
  • Quintessential smile: An ideal and aesthetically pleasing smile that is harmonious with facial features.

R

  • Retainer: A removable or fixed orthodontic appliance used to maintain tooth position after completing orthodontic treatment.
  • Removable appliance: An orthodontic appliance that can be taken out of the mouth by the patient.
  • Rapid palatal expander: An orthodontic device used to widen the upper jaw and correct crossbites.
  • Root canal: A dental procedure that involves removing infected or damaged dental pulp from the root canal of a tooth.
  • Recession: The gradual loss of gum tissue, which can expose the roots of the teeth.
  • Radiograph: An X-ray image that helps diagnose dental and skeletal conditions.
  • Retention phase: The phase of orthodontic treatment after active tooth movement, where retainers are used to maintain the achieved alignment.
  • Rubber bands: Small elastic bands used in orthodontic treatment to apply force and correct bite and alignment issues.
  • Recontouring: The reshaping or smoothing of tooth enamel to improve appearance or correct minor irregularities.
  • Resorption: The natural process of breaking down and reabsorbing root or bone tissue.

S

  • Straight wire appliance: An orthodontic technique that uses pre-formed brackets and archwires to achieve precise tooth alignment.
  • Space maintainer: An orthodontic device used to preserve space in the dental arch for permanent teeth when baby teeth are lost prematurely.
  • Self-ligating brackets: Orthodontic brackets that have built-in doors or clips to hold the archwire in place, eliminating the need for elastic or wire ligatures.
  • Skeletal anchorage: The use of mini-implants or other devices to provide stable anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement.
  • Sagittal appliance: An orthodontic device used to promote forward or backward movement of the upper or lower jaw.
  • Serial extraction: A planned sequence of removing certain baby teeth to create space for proper eruption of permanent teeth.
  • Space analysis: The evaluation and measurement of the available space in the dental arch for proper tooth alignment.
  • Splint: A device used to stabilize or immobilize teeth or jaws, often used in cases of temporomandibular joint disorders.
  • Sublingual wire: A thin wire bonded to the backside of the lower front teeth to stabilize them and prevent relapse.
  • Stainless steel: A common material used for orthodontic brackets, wires, and other appliances due to its strength and durability.

T

  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ): The joint connecting the jawbone to the skull, responsible for jaw movement.
  • Torque: The rotational force applied to the tooth to align it properly within the dental arch.
  • TAD (Temporary Anchorage Device): A mini-implant used as a stable anchor for orthodontic tooth movement.
  • Transpalatal arch: A fixed orthodontic appliance that connects the upper molars to maintain arch width.
  • Tongue thrust: A habit of pushing the tongue against the teeth during swallowing or at rest, which can impact tooth alignment.
  • Twin block appliance: A removable orthodontic appliance used to correct jaw discrepancies and encourage proper growth.
  • TMD (Temporomandibular Disorder): A condition characterized by pain, clicking, or limited movement in the temporomandibular joint.
  • Traction: The application of force to move teeth or jaws into the desired position.
  • Tracing: The process of reproducing the shape and contours of the teeth and jaws on diagnostic records.
  • Transverse dimension: The width of the dental arch, including the distance between the upper and lower jaws.

U

  • Underbite: A dental condition where the lower front teeth protrude beyond the upper front teeth when the jaw is closed.
  • Upper arch: The dental arch comprising the upper teeth.
  • Uprighting: The process of moving tilted or rotated teeth into an upright position.
  • Unilateral: A term used to describe a condition or treatment affecting only one side of the mouth.
  • Uvula: The small, fleshy structure at the back of the throat, hanging down from the soft palate.
  • Unerupted tooth: A tooth that has not emerged fully through the gum into the mouth.
  • Upper lip frenectomy: A surgical procedure to remove or modify the tissue that attaches the upper lip to the gum.
  • Uncovering: The process of exposing a tooth that is partially or fully covered by gum tissue.
  • U-shaped archwire: An orthodontic archwire with a U-shaped configuration used to create space and align teeth.
  • Unstable occlusion: A dental occlusion that lacks stability and proper alignment of the teeth and jaws.

V

  • Veneers: Thin shells of porcelain or composite resin that are bonded to the front surface of teeth to improve their appearance.
  • Vestibular: Referring to the outer surface of the teeth that is visible when the mouth is open.
  • Vibrational appliances: Devices used to apply high-frequency vibrations to the teeth and surrounding bone to accelerate tooth movement.
  • Vertical dimension: The height of the lower face, including the distance between the upper and lower jaws.
  • V-shaped archwire: An orthodontic archwire with a V-shaped configuration used to correct dental irregularities.
  • Vivera retainers: Clear, removable retainers made by Invisalign® that help maintain the position of the teeth after orthodontic treatment.
  • V-Loop: A loop incorporated into the orthodontic archwire to create space or provide additional tooth movement.
  • VTO (Visual Treatment Objective): A process of creating a visual representation of the expected outcome of orthodontic treatment.
  • Vertical overlap: The degree to which the upper front teeth cover the lower front teeth when the jaw is closed.
  • V-bend: A specific bend in the orthodontic archwire to provide additional control and movement of teeth.

W

  • Wires: The metal components used in orthodontics, such as archwires, that provide force to move teeth.
  • Wax: A soft material used to provide temporary relief from orthodontic appliance irritation.
  • Wisdom teeth: The third molars that typically erupt in the late teens or early twenties, often requiring extraction due to lack of space.
  • Whitening: The process of lightening the color of teeth using various dental techniques or products.
  • Weingart pliers: Orthodontic pliers used for the placement and removal of orthodontic appliances.
  • W-archwire: An orthodontic archwire with a W-shaped configuration used to address specific tooth movements.
  • Winging: A term used to describe the flaring or protrusion of the front teeth.
  • Woven wire: A type of orthodontic retainer made from a flexible woven wire material.
  • Width of the smile: The horizontal measurement of the visible teeth when smiling, which can be impacted by orthodontic treatment.
  • White spots: Areas of demineralization on the tooth surface that appear as white or chalky spots, often caused by poor oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment.

X

  • X-ray: A diagnostic imaging technique that uses radiation to produce images of the teeth, jaws, and surrounding structures.
  • Xerostomia: Dry mouth, a condition characterized by reduced saliva production, which can impact oral health during orthodontic treatment.
  • X-bracket: A type of orthodontic bracket that has a unique design resembling the letter “X.”
  • Xylitol: A natural sugar substitute that can help prevent tooth decay and promote oral health.
  • X-linkage: A term used in genetics to describe the inheritance pattern of certain genetic traits related to orthodontic conditions.
  • X-factor: Referring to any unique or extraordinary element or aspect in orthodontic treatment.
  • Xylometazoline: A nasal decongestant spray that can be used to relieve nasal congestion during orthodontic treatment.
  • X-coordinate: A term used in orthodontic treatment planning to describe the position of a specific tooth in the dental arch.
  • X-ray beam: The focused stream of X-rays used to capture images of the teeth and jaws.
  • Xanthodontia: A condition characterized by yellowish discoloration of the teeth, often caused by certain medications or systemic conditions.

Y

  • Yellow flags: Indicators or cautionary signs in orthodontic treatment that may require additional attention or monitoring.
  • Yaw: A term used to describe rotational movement of the jawbone around a vertical axis.
  • Yield strength: The amount of force or stress a material can withstand before permanent deformation or failure.
  • Y-archwire: An orthodontic archwire with a Y-shaped configuration used for specific tooth movements.
  • Yawning: The reflex action of opening one’s mouth wide, often accompanied by a stretching sensation, which can impact orthodontic appliances.
  • Y-connector: A device used to connect various components in orthodontic appliances or equipment.
  • Young’s modulus: A measure of the stiffness or rigidity of a material used in orthodontic appliances.
  • Younger patients: Referring to children or adolescents who undergo orthodontic treatment at a younger age.
  • Y-suture: The Y-shaped suture at the midline of the upper jaw, also known as the intermaxillary suture.
  • Y-axis: A reference axis used in orthodontic treatment planning to assess vertical tooth positions.

Z

  • Zygomatic bone: The cheekbone or malar bone that forms part of the upper jaw and contributes to facial structure.
  • Z-score: A statistical measure used to determine the deviation of a particular measurement or parameter from the mean in orthodontic analysis.
  • Zirconia: A type of ceramic material used in orthodontics for brackets, retainers, and other dental appliances.
  • Z-plasty: A surgical technique used to reposition or rearrange tissue for improved functional or aesthetic outcomes.
  • Zygomaticomaxillary complex: The anatomical structure formed by the zygomatic bone and the maxilla.
  • Zonular fibers: The delicate fibers that connect the ciliary body to the lens in the eye.
  • Zoonosis: A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans, often requiring precautions during orthodontic treatment.
  • Zygomatic arch: The bony structure formed by the zygomatic bone and the temporal bone.
  • Zirconium oxide: A high-strength ceramic material used in orthodontics for brackets and other dental appliances.
  • Zero-force technique: An orthodontic technique that emphasizes minimizing or eliminating excessive force during tooth movement.
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